Transitioning to Online Teaching (Entry 02)

Reflecting on Bloom’s Taxonomy and Its Use in Writing Learning Outcomes

This entry is part of a series on my learning journal for participating in Fresno State’s “Introducing to Teaching Online using the QLT (Quality Learning and Teaching) Instrument.

I was extremely fortunate to have had some exposure to Bloom’s Taxonomy early on in my education. It was in lower division GE course on critical thinking, “English 3” at Fresno City College, where we used Bloom’s Taxonomy as a framework for identifying and classifying kinds of thinking. I am always happy to revisit Bloom’s Taxonomy in my teaching more explicitly than I do in my regular designing and planning workflows where Bloom is more on auto-pilot than a specific reference.

As an adjunct or part time instructor, I’m not in the habit of writing learning outcomes: learning outcomes are traditionally handed to me. I write outcomes for specific assignments and inform my students how they’re mapped (or “aligned”) to the outcomes for the course—in fact I often ask them to make some guesses or predictions as to how assignments they’ve been given will do this for them—I think that using purposeful, actionable verbs will be immeasurably valuable in both my f2f and online teaching. Now I can ask questions like “If I want them to be able to do X-actionable-verb, how can I assess their achievement on X-actionable-verb?”

I’m an English person. I live and breathe words, phrases, clauses, and so on. For my part, I was excited to see the new “Bloom Wheel” that maps specific verbs to each level of the hierarchy. I believe having access to this list will help streamline generating learning outcomes as well as reinforce which area of the hierarchy I’m wanting us to focus on. This also invites me to engage in a similar process to which I ask my own students to engage: consult a lisBlooms Pedagogy Wheelt of more specific, active verbs to attribute to an author when they’re summarizing, paraphrasing, or directly quoting them, for writers rarely ever merely “say” or “state,” things—they “argue,” “emphasize,” “deplore,” “qualify,” “endorse,” “assert,” and so on. I ask my students to do this because finding an accurate verb to attribute to an author’s statement forces them to really understand what they’ve read. In the other side of the same coin, forcing me to choose an accurate verb to attribute to learning outcomes really forces me to take inventory of and understand what I’m asking my students to do and why I’m asking them to do it.

Transitioning to Online Teaching (Entry 01)

This entry is part of a series on my learning journal for participating in Fresno State’s “Introducing to Teaching Online using the QLT (Quality Learning and Teaching) Instrument.

Some key issues

I began my learning journey by recognizing and identifying some common key issues across multiple sources and speakers.

Some summaries

(responding to faculty input from “Take My Advice” published by Inside Higher Ed in 2017).

Tom Beaudoin

I value two pieces of advice from Beaudoin. On the one hand, we should seek to understand who has ownership of the online course material we generate. Is it ours? Is it the institutions? What happens if we leave the institution or teach at multiple institutions? This particularly concerns me because I already generate a lot of online content. I produce that content on the institution’s dime–kind of–as a part-timer, I’m technically only paid for contact hours and not for prep time or office hours. So I’m spending my own time generating content, but it is being hosted through Canvas or through the institution’s LMS. Who owns that data? I sure hope I do. That concern aside, I also value Beaudoin’s urge toward collaboration among colleagues. As faculty—even for me as part time, non-tenure-track faculty, it is indeed up to us to work together and make decisions as to what we want online education to be. Goldberg echoes this advice as well, urging both faculty and students to try and arrange local meetups from time to time.

Kalenda Eaton

From my own discipline, Eaton offers helpful advice on a key area of online instruction: making up for the non-verbal communication we “lose” going from f2f to online instruction. She encourages us to make frequent use of videos so students can get a sense of our personality and tonal inflections; ideally, this will breathe life into our written words, helping students to pick up on our own non-verbal queues. Building on that, I think we could ask students to submit their own videos or at least audio recordings using a tool like VoiceThread. Ofcourse, to her second point, I cannot agree more how valuable it is to get students engaged, incorporating material “in ways that require students to be active, rather than passive, learners.”

Leigh Ann Hall

Flipgrid looks super interesting. I’m definitely going to check it out. This looks like a great way to add faces and voices to online classes. Again this could potentially address the commonly-identified problem of missing out on the non-verbal communication that teachers need to pick up on.

Key issue: how to help manage team based learning when you’re not there in person to consult with the group and monitor group dynamics?

Key issue: formative assessment without reading body language/non-verbal communcation; instead, we need to pay close attention to responses and questions asked in discussion forums. I think it’s a good idea to open a general forum where students can ask general questions and content-specific questions, inviting students to answer each others questions and not just depend on me.

Key issue: adaptability! Online courses are set up on the front end and harder to adapt as the course progresses. However, I think we can use adaptive tools as a part of the course (InQuizitive by Norton, for example).

Personal experience and reflection

Formalist vs. Constructivist Pedagogy in Face-to-Face and Online Instruction

I have a variety of pedagogical mechanisms that are already well suited to online instruction, some of which grow from my personal development over time and experience, some of which grow from what my discipline values in teaching environments. For example, one of the key differences noted on the “Comparing face-to-face and online teaching” table is that in face-to-face instruction, teaching context is mostly “sage on the stage” and lecture-driven while in online classes, there’s less direct instruction; instead, the instructor frames discussion and activities. Making the move from “sage on the stage” style teaching to “framer” style teaching can pose a challenge for teachers who are used to “sage on the stage” style teaching; however, the latter is how I’ve been teaching face-to-face since I began teaching six years ago. So I’m definitely looking for ways to bring that framework into my online teaching. With this, I will continue to frame discussions and activities that are content-driven, reader-response-driven, and reflection-driven (just as this journal entry is inviting us to do now).

Course Adaptability Hindered Online

Another concern and challenge with online courses is the general loss of adaptability. While in a F2F context teachers can adapt course materials, content, assessment activities, etc. on the fly, there is less freedom to do this in an online format. I didn’t get any concrete reasons as to why exactly this is true, but my sense is that there is some truth-value to this challenge. I’ve only taught pure F2F and blended/hybrid courses (the latter of which solely by my own design), so I think I’m less familiar with this particular challenge. In a purely online context though, I imagine the challenge comes from the asynchronous nature of the learning environment. How do you adapt the course when students and teachers are working their way through asynchronously? What immediately comes to mind is to incorporate formative assessment activities in learning modules, the responses to which can inform how well students are engaging with, understanding, and making meaning from the course content. Depending on the responses from those assessment activities, instructors can record videos, provide demonstrative feedback, tweak the content of future modules, etc.

Is Arming Teachers a Good Idea?

On February 14, 2018, at Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, 17 people were killed at the hands of Nikolas Cruz and his AR-15 style rifle. Although Donald Trump was not the first voice in the conversation on arming teachers to solve the problem of school shootings, his comments endorsing the NRA’s position on arming teachers following the February 14 shooting has given rise to widespread debate.

To anyone supporting arming teachers in schools as a reasonable and rational measure in preventing or mitigating mass shootings at schools, I challenge you to read this post (and the links…ALL of them) before continuing to respond to this conversation. When so many lives are at stake, how willing are you to listen carefully to perspectives and arguments that do not align with your own preexisting beliefs?

Placing the Burden

After the shooting rampage in Dallas in 2016, police chief David Brown said that overall, the police force is asked to take on too much, and too much responsibility is affecting their ability to do any aspect of their job well. Being overburdened and over-stressed does not lead to good job performance. Perhaps this is why law enforcement failed to respond to several early warning signs that Nikolas Cruz had plans to massacre his high school. This is a problem in our police forces, and we cannot do the same to teachers.

Teachers are already overburdened with responsibility. Is it seriously reasonable and rational to put even more responsibility on teachers’ plates when they’re already responsible for providing our children with a 21st century education (not to mention being underfunded in this endeavor to begin with)?

Firsthand Accounts

Arming Teachers? Guns + Schools: It Doesn't Add UpEven a variety of veterans think it’s a bad idea to have firearms in classrooms (see James Fallows’ article at The Atlantic and Matt Martin’s narrative at Charlotte Five). People who actually teach don’t think it’s a good idea. And mental health care professionals suggest that having firearms in the classroom likely wouldn’t decrease and could actually INCREASE the incidents of mass shootings in schools (link #6).

A Light Literature Review

So to those of you supporting firearms in classrooms, how do you respond to these narratives and arguments? (which I’ve briefly annotated for your convenience):

  1. Teaching is more than “teaching” (so how can we ask teachers to do even more and have a chance at being successful?):
    https://www.mcsweeneys.net/articles/excuse-me-while-i-teach-your-child-but-first-i-must
  2. Police weren’t meant to solve every societal problem [and neither are teachers]:
    https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2016/07/11/grief-and-anger-continue-after-dallas-attacks-and-police-shootings-as-debate-rages-over-policing/?utm_term=.33c55f48b25f
  3. Personal narrative from a vet who reveals that you can never know how people will handle a live fire situation no matter how much training they have (if some military personnel with LOADS of training freeze in live fire situations, what can we expect of teachers?):
    https://www.charlottefive.com/arming-teachers/
  4. Personal narrative from a then-vet and now-teacher who challenges the notion of becoming a once-again infantryman in the classroom:
    https://www.theatlantic.com/notes/2018/02/a-veteran-on-the-need-to-control-civilian-arms/553709/?utm_source=fbb
  5. Personal narrative and argument from a college teacher, pointing to a variety of problems and valid concerns about having firearms in the classroom:
    https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/posteverything/wp/2018/02/22/why-i-will-never-carry-a-gun-in-my-classroom/?utm_term=.527a8bd329ad
  6. From a psychological perspective, Peter Langman reveals how most school shooters—particularly psychopathic shooters—fully intend to either commit suicide after or be killed during or after the shooting (suggesting to me that arming teachers gives psychopaths the idea that they’ll more likely be killed which could actually INCREASE the number of school shootings rather than decrease): https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/keeping-kids-safe/200908/kill-and-die-suicide-and-school-shooters

The 2017 Solar Eclipse, Beliefs, and Science

When I really sit down and think about it, I’m amazed at how such a thing can be so accurately predicted. 38 years ago, scientists said with absolute certainty that August 21, 2017 would be the next solar eclipse visible from the continental United States. We take science for granted with such things. “Oh, science says there’s going to be a total eclipse and here’s the exact day, time, and path of it; you can see it best from these cities,” and we trust that. 38 years in the making and we trust it without question.

1979 Solar Eclipse Coverage

So many of us are travelling around the country to get the best views or perhaps planning to make pinhole cameras so we can observe it safely (we trust science to teach us how to make pinhole cameras). Even if 15 years ago scientists were to have said “Oy! We forgot to take in to account the moon’s declining orbit around Earth over a 38 year period, so now taking that in to account the next eclipse will come two days sooner than previously thought,” we’d probably say to ourselves, “Oh, alright. Well done, science! Thanks! We’ll be sure to mark our calendars. Keep up the good work.”

Yet when it comes to things like climate change and evolution—where these theories have been and are revised and expanded in light of new evidence—suddenly everyone with an opinion or a belief is smarter than science.

Now don’t get me wrong. I’m not suggesting that we don’t question everything. As it is, science operates chiefly on the principal of questioning everything. In fact it’s so good at questioning everything that it can accurately predict total solar eclipses decades into the future. The particular brilliance of science is that it’s indifferent about being right or wrong: if science is right about something, we learn something new; if science is wrong about something, we (still) learn something new. Questioning beliefs, however, is an entirely different matter, for the human equations of ego-centrism and narcissism are most insecure at the notion of being “wrong.” We go to war with science and each other over that.

Just like rhetoric—its ethical use moving us along a spectrum away from misunderstanding, conflict, and war—science moves us toward identification, understanding, and peace.

So, Dear Moonshadow, until next time… we’ll keep working on it.

Personal Qualities Not Measured by Tests

Personal Qualities Not Measured by Tests

I’m not sure what the original source of this is, but it’s meaningful to my pedagogy and therefore has a place on the Snow of the Universe. Thank you, universe, for this one. Listed in no particular order…

Personal qualities not measured by testing.

  • Creativity
  • Critical Thinking
  • Resilience
  • Motivation
  • Persistence
  • Curiosity
  • Inquiry
  • Humor
  • Endurance
  • Reliability
  • Enthusiasm
  • Civic-mindedness
  • Self-awareness
  • Self-discipline
  • Empathy
  • Leadership
  • Compassion
  • Courage
  • Sense of Aesthetics
  • Sense of Wonder
  • Resourcefulness
  • Spontaneity
  • Humility
  • Bravery
  • Courage
  • Conviction

Reading and Writing as Mindful Practices

Special acknowledgement to Asao Inoue for his hard and thoughtful work in collaborating on this this handout with me.

Reading and Writing as Mindful Practices

“Some people, especially the very young, are good at noticing things that the rest of us don’t see or have ceased to notice. Growing up, we all become increasingly desensitized to the world around us; we tend to forget the specific things that get us to feel and think in particular ways.” (Rosenwasser and Stephen 15)

Listening. We take the act for granted, but what happens within us when we read or listen to a text, to another person speaking to us, or something on our electronic devices? What is happening in your head as you listen to someone else say something to you? What is happening in your mind as you read these words? Are you fully and undividedly listening to the words on this page as you read them in your head? Chances are, if you are like almost everyone else on the planet, your attention is divided to some degree. You may be reading these words, but you are also thinking of other things.

“…we aren’t the victims of declining intelligence, but of habit. That is, as we organize our lives so that we can function more efficiently, we condition ourselves to see in more predictable ways and to tune out things that are not immediately relevant to our daily needs.” (Rosenwasser and Stephen 15-16)

Have you ever read a page or even a chapter from something, finished reading or paused, then realized that you don’t know much of what you had just read? Your mind was multitasking as you were reading. This multitasking of the mind actually keeps you from reading academic and dense texts carefully and critically, even to the point of not really knowing what you just read.

“Moving along the roadway in cars, we periodically realize that miles have gone by while we were driving on automatic pilot, attending barely at all to the road or the car or the landscape. Arguably, even when we try to focus on something that we want to consider, the habit of not really attending to things stays with us.” (Rosenwasser and Stephen 16)

Take a moment to pause your reading and just sit back and reflect on how you’ve been listening to these words so far. Has your mind drifted to other things at all? It’s OK if it has—try not to be judgmental of yourself. Right now the important thing is just realizing that it’s happening. Pause your reading and just sit and reflect for 30 seconds.


Your mind may even have drifted off to thinking and worrying about other things in that space of 30 seconds. If you are like most people, there are other voices in your head as you read a book or this page – or do anything in your daily life, really. These voices, we might say, are an ongoing, running monologue to yourself about anything and everything, your own voice speaking to you in your mind as read these words, telling you that you are hungry, or that you should have worn that green shirt today, or that you don’t really understand the point of this class, or that you’re anxious about a job or dating prospect, etc. This is normal. Everyone’s mind does it. In fact, one might say it is how our minds work, but they don’t always work this way. Occasionally, our minds are silent for a moment. In that moment, we aren’t thinking of anything. There is no monologue. When this happens, we are the most aware and alert to things around us, including words.

Many have found ways to silence the monologue intentionally so that a deeper awareness of what is happening in one’s life, such as reading a text, can occur, a deeper awareness of what these words mean and don’t mean, what they could mean, and what might be underneath them, assumed by the writer, tacit or implied. This kind of listening to words we read in silence takes practice, but it’s easy to begin doing.

Mindful Reading

Mindful reading is reading when your mind is most calm and silent – that is, reading when the monologue has stopped. The key is to find some practices that will help you stop the monologue, at least for a time, so that you can read a text more carefully, more focused, more aware of its nuances and possible meanings. To mindfully read a text, do the following before you begin any session of reading:

  • Find a quiet, distraction-free place with little or no ambient noise or motions in the background. This is important. Sounds and sights around us in small ways take our attention away from a text when we read, even when we don’t realize it. Silence and the absence of motion in the environment are your friends when trying to silence the monologue and find focus and awareness when reading.
  • Create a comfortable, upright bodily position in which to read. If we are going to read with purpose, it makes sense to get our bodies into a position of intention. When you are upright and your back is straight, your diaphragm has more freedom to articulate your lungs—physiologically, you can get the most oxygen to your brain, helping your body stay alert. It’s not really a good idea to read lying down. That bodily position is not conducive to alertness and awareness, which is important for carefully reading a text. When you lie down your body begins to shift into rest and relaxation mode. This might work well for you for casual or leisurely reading, but reading academic texts is a different kind of act with different purposes requiring a different type of agency, namely more focus and attention than you might be used to giving while reading.
  • Spend 2-5 minutes just breathing mindfully. There is lots of research that shows the benefits of mindfulness practices. One of the benefits is helping one to focus just on the body so that the mind’s monologue subsides. There are several ways to mindfully breath, but to start, try sitting in your comfortable, upright position, closing your eyes, and breathing in through your nose, deeply and slowly, then out through your mouth slowly and completely. As you breathe, notice the feelings in your body, in your nose as the air comes in, in your belly and throat as you exhale. Just pay attention to those physical sensations. When your mind begins to talk to you, notice the thought and let it go. Don’t pursue it or worry about it. Notice and release it. It’s okay to have thoughts during mindful breathing. If you practice this, you’ll find it easier to clear your mind, but clearing your mind is not the point. The point is to focus on your body, on your breathing. Just be right there in the moment, breathing.
  • If you can, ring a bell or chime and focus on the sound. By focusing on the sound of the bell as it fades, listening to it, following the sound as it gets softer and softer, you will notice that your mind becomes quieter. Your mind is busy listening to that sound as it fades, searching for hints of its tone. You can repeat this several times. The reason this activity works to help quiet your mind and move you toward a more focused awareness is because of the silence. The silence is actually more important than the sound of the bell. In a sense, you are really listening to silence, which helps your mind settle and focus.

Works Cited

Rosenwasser, David, and Jill Stephen, eds. “The Analytical Frame of Mind.” Writing Analytically. Custom 7th Edition. Stamford: Cengage, 2015. 1-38. Print.

A PDF version of his handout is available here.

Fresno State DISCOVERe Summer Institute | Day 04 – Pathbrite

Fresno State DISCOVERe: Day 4 Reflection – Pathbrite

As an English teacher and rhetorician, I am always thinking about purpose, audience, and context, and I want my composition students to be thinking about these things too, particularly when they generate a portfolio at the end of our courses as a kind of culminating experience. When we were introduced to pathbrite and ePortfolios earlier in the week, my interest was initially piqued, thinking this could be a new opportunity for students to consider purpose, audience, and context. In today’s pathbrite breakout session, I’m further convinced that this will be a move in a positive direction, potentially redefining what portfolios look like in our university’s first year writing program.

Pathbrite LogoAs our world context changes—digital literacies becoming an intrinsic part of academic literacy and citizenship in general—it only makes sense that portfolios in our first year writing program should evolve to reflect those world context changes. But my sense is that pathbrite can allow us to do more than merely shift portfolios from one textual form to another (from print to digital media in this case). The element of public consumption—that added dimension of audience and purpose—will invite both students and faculty to orient these texts differently throughout the writing process, from annotating texts they read to editing texts for final publication. In the past, I have invited my students to consider both their real audience (their classmates and me) and their imagined, ideal audience (a broader college-educated audience, other interested public intellectuals, the authors they’re responding to in their writing, etc.). Pathbrite allows us to shift parts of the imagined, ideal audience toward the real audience. This will certainly effect the way both students and faculty think about student writing because their writing and the publication thereof more closely reflects real-world writing models.

Fresno State DISCOVERe Summer Institute | Day 03

DISCOVERe Day 3 Reflection

Purely from a social justice point of view, I am passionate about equal access to higher education; it seems like affordable learning solutions and open education resources are a big part of the conversation here. I am particularly interested in Intellus’ framework in curating free materials and presenting them to my students in a way that matches the weekly or modular structure of my courses. Too, having a single place for input/output of course materials seems pretty convenient. While the analytics for student engagement look cool, I do not think they will add anything above or beyond what I already do with incorporated formative assessment.

To paraphrase something I heard on the first day of the institute, students who do not speak in class will speak through their devices; this idea was running in my mental back channel during the breakout sessions this afternoon. Although not limited to this, one of the things that makes tablets so powerful is their multifunctionality and mobility. They are portal multimedia recording devices. I used to think that tablets excelled only at media consumption but not generation. Today I realized that through the integrated microphone(s), camera(s), attachable probeware, and (hopefully) keyboards, tablets have really come in to their own in terms of generating media and data. The tablet’s cameras and microphones along with accompanying editing and publishing software have inspired me to think of a new activity for my first year writing students (and any course for first-semester freshmen, for that matter).

Helping my students more fully integrate themselves with university life and culture is an area of my teaching I believe I could improve upon. To this end, one activity I would like my tablet students to do early on in the semester, perhaps within the first two weeks, is to explore campus and find a place that they believe would be a good place for them to study. I see this taking the shape of a visual and audio essay that also mimics a writing process—I might have them take still images and post that somewhere as an initial draft, maybe writing a paragraph about how or why they believe this place on campus will be good for their study time; once that has gone through a feedback loop, their next draft will be to create a more fully realized video. My underlying thinking for the value of this activity is threefold: they will be invited to explore the campus; they will have to learn some of the functions of their device, both hardware and software; and they will be re-introduced to a composition process that involves inquiry, exploration, drafting, feedback, revision, and publication.

Fresno State DISCOVERe Summer Institute | Day 2

DISCOVERe: Day 2 Reflection – Google Education

Although I have been using Google Drive, Google Apps, and Google Classroom in my teaching for a few years already, today I did learn a variety of little tidbits that I am excited to incorporate into my teaching. As I wrote in my previous day’s reflection, mobile technology’s potential for formative assessment remains in the foreground of my technological radar, and I believe the entire Google Education Suite is endlessly valuable to this end. Today, however, I am seeing some ways in which the Google Education Suite can help me be more efficient and expedient as an instructor, freeing me from administrative tasks and allowing me to invest more of my time and energy in helping my students make meaning from course material.

Google LogoThe primary benefit I’m seeing with the Google Education Suite is its ability to help me be more efficient and expedient through delegation which, incidentally, touches on flipped classroom pedagogy. This fall I will have 5 sections of English 5A, and if they all maintain full capacity, I will have 125 first-year writing students. Old feedback and assessment methodology would look something like this: I would assign a writing activity or assignment; my students would produce a draft; they would then turn that draft in; I would read each and every draft, commenting where I felt the student could use some guidance; and I would return those drafts to my students. This process would likely repeat for a second or final draft. Using Google Classroom as a distribution platform, Google Forms as a scaffold for feedback, and Google Sheets to manage data, however, will allow me to exponentially expedite this process while also enabling my students to generate meaningful feedback for each other as well, ultimately redefining the feedback and assessment portions of the classroom writing process.

Using Google Classroom, I can distribute all of the materials my students need in order to generate feedback for their peers. This will primarily include a pool of drafts collected in a shared Google Drive folder and a form which they will use to submit their feedback and assessment notes. The form allows me to scaffold how the students leave feedback for each other as well as set minimum length requirements to further insure that they are leaving substantial feedback for each other. Once all of the data is collected in the associated Google Sheet, I can simply mail merge the data back to each student. If I were to assign each student two papers for which to leave feedback, my 125 students will generate 250 feedback items, and with mail merge technology, they will receive that feedback within a day of having submitted it rather than after a week or two depending on my workload. Finally, this allows me to see exactly what kinds of feedback my students are providing to each other. I believe students will gain valuable insights about their own writing with how they’re assessing each other’s writing, and this will be an extension of their understanding about how their writing will be assessed by me. Finally, since I can read all of the feedback they’re leaving for each other, I can engage in writing instruction on both the drafting and peer feedback sides of the writing coin, something traditional writing process feedback methodology could not do.

Fresno State DISCOVERe Summer Institute | Day 1

DISCOVERe: Day 1 Reflection

My underlying framework for figuring out how I can “harness the power of mobile devices to redefine teaching . . . and create student-centered environments” so far is the extended ability to incorporate formative assessment. I am also thinking about project-based learning in general and considering how it might touch on the ARCS model for motivation.
With regard to formative assessment, I see DISCOVERe and mobile technology potentially offering new ways to engage in formative assessment. In the past after discussing a new concept in the classroom, I would ask my students to show me on their hands how well they’re understanding the new concept on a scale of 1 to 5—1 being “not at all” and 5 being “confident.” While I will still use formative assessment techniques like this, I believe that observing their written labor in real time through cloud-based word processing apps like Google Docs will offer new insights into how my students are processing new concepts and ideas. Furthermore, having these insights in real time may allow me to touch directly on the ARCS model, specifically on (C)onfidence, if I can give either praise or gentle corrections as they’re working.

In a different area of the ARCS model, I’m considering both (R)elevance and (S)atisfaction with project-based learning. I believe that if I can create a project that’s framed by a real-world concern that is particularly important to my students, they will be intrinsically interested through its relevance to their lives, and if they know that they will be publishing their labor for an audience to consume, there’s a great chance that they will feel a sense of (S)atisfaction. If my suspicions are correct, this framework should invite a great deal of motivation in my students which will lead them to take even more ownership of their own learning.

Proudly powered by WordPress | Theme: Baskerville 2 by Anders Noren.

Up ↑